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Types of Exercise

The weather is getting warmer, and swimsuit season is just around the corner. As a result, many are thinking of renewing their healthy New Year's Resolutions that may have fallen by the wayside. This is this first in a series of articles to help you choose the right workout program. Not all programs are created equal, and their effectiveness is largely based on your...

GOALS!
 


Proper goal-setting is the one of the most important aspects of choosing or creating a workout program. If you really want to add 50 pounds to your bench press, then spending most of your exercise time running at a steady pace doesn't make much sense. On the other hand, a heavy lifting program may not be the best for pure weight loss. So the first step in choosing a good workout program is setting a good goal. When setting a goal, try to be as specific as possible. For example, you don't want your goal to be, "I want to lose weight." Instead tell yourself, "I want to lose 10 pounds in the next 30 days." This way you have a target to reach in a defined time period. Now your goal doesn't have to be singular and can be done in parts. What does that mean? You can do a short-term and long-term version of the same goal. So that, "I want to lose 10 pounds in 30 days" can become, "I want to lose 40 pounds in 6 months."


Here are a few more tips about setting good goals. First, set an aggressive goal. If you don't set a high bar, it is hard to get motivated to reach it. And even if you aren't quite able to reach the goal, you've still made considerable progress. Second, make sure you tell people about your goal before you start working toward it. The encouragement of your friends and family will help keep you motivated and held accountable. Who knows if your new commitment to fitness may help encourage a loved one to change their lives for the better?


So what kind of program is best for you? That's for you to decide! In this article, we will discuss the pros and cons of different types of programs. Using that information, you can look for more information on the ones that might suit you the best.

Weight Training (Resistance training)


Weight training involves moving your body through a series of planned, repetitive movements against resistance. These "lifts" work the targeted muscles increasing the muscle size, strength, and efficiency. Studies have shown improvements in body composition following a resistance training regimen. Body composition is defined as the ratio of lean body mass (muscle) to fat mass. The increase in muscle activity and muscle mass also increases resting metabolism so you're burning more calories even when you aren't exercising 1 ! Overall weight loss is not always seen, as the increase in lean body mass can offset the decrease in fat, which makes sense as muscle is more dense than fat. However, weight training should not be neglected from a health standpoint, as resistance training has shown to positively affect insulin response 2 . So even if weight loss is your main goal, elements of a resistance training program should be considered because of the health benefits.

LISS Training (Cardio)

 

This type of training is the first thing people think about when a discussion about getting in shape comes up. LISS stands for Low Intensity Steady State and simply means a submaximal or slower pace is set consistently for the duration of the exercise period. Running, cycling, or rowing for long distances at a steady pace are all types of LISS training. This type of training increases both heart and lung health 3 . Mitochondrial density increases in the muscle after repeated periods of LISS training, which allow for greater oxygen use by the muscle 4 . Steady state training is the best for direct fat loss due to the body's ability to burn fat at submaximal training levels 5 .

HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training)

 

HIIT is the newest craze, and for good reason. Interval training burns the most calories in the shortest amount of time. Calisthenics, jump rope, and sprints are all exercises that can be performed in some sort of order or "circuit". As a result, HIIT is also called circuit training or interval training. Like weight training, HIIT training can increase insulin response, especially in obese individuals, and in addition, it can also increase mitochondrial activation as seen with LISS training with a lower volume of training compared to LISS training 6 . So in many ways HIIT has some of the best of both worlds. Then why doesn't everyone do it? There are a few drawbacks. First, as the name implies HIIT workouts are extremely hard, and you have to push yourself to the max in order to get the desired benefit. Also, if you're performing unfamiliar movements at a high rate of speed, the chances of injury and irritation of the joints increases greatly.


Hopefully, this short article has helped to demystify some of the confusion surrounding exercise. Many well-rounded exercise programs will incorporate elements of any or all of the types of programs mentioned. In future articles, we will discuss different program options, some of the science behind the exercise, and lifestyle changes to help maximize the results of your program. It's always a good idea to talk to your doctor and/or an exercise professional before starting an exercise program. This will help you choose the right program for you and will help you avoid any unpleasant response to exercise (other than a little sweat)!

Sources


1. W W Campbell, M C Crim, V R Young, and W J Evans. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr August 1994 vol. 60 no. 2 167-175.


2. Craig BW1, Everhart J, Brown R. The influence of high-resistance training on glucose tolerance in young and elderly subjects. Mech Ageing Dev. 1989 Aug; 49(2):147-57.

 

3. R. J. Spina, T. Ogawa, W. M. Kohrt, W. H. Martin, J. O. Holloszy, A. A. Ehsani. Differences in cardiovascular adaptations to endurance exercise training between older men and women.

 

Journal of Applied Physiology Aug 1993, 75 (2) 849-855


4. Holloszy, John O., and Edward F. Coyle. "Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences." Journal of applied physiology 56.4 (1984): 831-838.


5. Ross, M. (December 18, 2013) Does Cardio Burn Muscle or Fat? www.live

 

6. Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., MacDonald, M. J. and Hawley, J. A. (2012), Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of Physiology, 590: 1077–1084. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.224725

Science of Muscle Contraction

Sources


1. Clinically oriented anatomy
Keith L.Moore - Arthur F.Dalley - A. M. R.Agur - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins - 2006


2. Exercise physiology: theory and application to fitness and performance
Scott K.Powers - Edward T.Howley - McGraw Hill - 2001


3. Adaptatiom of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. HOLLOSZY, JOHN O., AND EDWARD F. COYLE. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 56(4): 831-838, 1984


4. Myosin isoforms, muscle fiber types, and transitions
Dirk Pette - Robert S.Staron - Microscopy Research and Technique Microsc. Res. Tech. - 2000

Sources


1. W W Campbell, M C Crim, V R Young, and W J Evans. Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr August 1994 vol. 60 no. 2 167-175.


2. Craig BW1, Everhart J, Brown R. The influence of high-resistance training on glucose tolerance in young and elderly subjects. Mech Ageing Dev. 1989 Aug; 49(2):147-57.

 

3. R. J. Spina, T. Ogawa, W. M. Kohrt, W. H. Martin, J. O. Holloszy, A. A. Ehsani. Differences in cardiovascular adaptations to endurance exercise training between older men and women.

 

Journal of Applied Physiology Aug 1993, 75 (2) 849-855


4. Holloszy, John O., and Edward F. Coyle. "Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences." Journal of applied physiology 56.4 (1984): 831-838.


5. Ross, M. (December 18, 2013) Does Cardio Burn Muscle or Fat? www.live

 

6. Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., MacDonald, M. J. and Hawley, J. A. (2012), Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of Physiology, 590: 1077–1084. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.224725

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